Bitcoin danger!Quantum computing block chains break the two Vital

In recent years, the block chain as a superstar of Internet banking by the infinite attention, bitcoin block chain is the technology of fried chicken, science and technology in the industry, no one does not know the super virtual currency – Bitcoin。 Bitcoin how the fire?It was born in 2009, in 2010, ten thousand Bitcoin also enough to buy two pizzas, while in 2018, Bitcoin prices have exceeded $ 10,000, had to buy two pizza 10000 Bitcoin value is now about 7 0.800 million yuan。
From the initial price of less than 1 cent in 2010, rose to more than US $ 10 000 now, Bitcoin was born eight years to achieve a growth of 100 times。
Why is a reality that does not exist Bitcoin will fire to this extent?The core lies in its safe and reliable。
Bitcoin for its exquisite design characteristics so bring a few: 1, it can achieve person-to-person transactions without any intermediaries; 2, if not traded, Bitcoin never stolen; 3, Bitcoin automatic quantitative issue, the only way to get Bitcoin mining and purchased from the hands of others, no matter who you are, by the difficulty of obtaining Bitcoin mining are the same。
The reason of the fire Bitcoin block chain from the reason given for their technical freedom, security, fairness, however, in the near future, such a romantic virtual currency regime may have to be completely collapse, many people believe in emerging technology of safe, reliable, rock-solid foundation might be destroyed by a fast-growing。 This emerging technology is quantum computing。 Just last week, Chinese Academy of Sciences study quantum computer breakthrough, Chinese Academy of Sciences Institute of Quantum Information and Quantum Technology Innovation release 11-qubit superconducting quantum access cloud computing services in superconducting quantum computing direction, global perspective, to provide 10 more qubits cloud computing service, which is following IBM's second, this progress so that quantum computing once again become the focus。
The rapid development of quantum computing beyond all expectations, there are forecasts that, within a decade, quantum computing will be a devastating blow to the block chain (including bitcoin)。 So, how quantum computer would pose a threat to block chain?It would cause much of a threat?There is no block chain countermeasures against it?This principle from quantum computers and talking about the block chain。 A quantum computer and block chain 1, quantum computers intellectual stuff was recently published an article on quantum computers (quantum computers around the world to decipher how all the terrible one second password!), Simply, operating unit, quantum computers are quantum bits (qubits) rather than bit (bit classical computer)。 In classical computer, the value of a bit is determined, may be 1, it may be 0, but in a quantum computer, a value of qubit prior observation is uncertain, this value might be 1, it is also possible is 0, may also be a superposition of states 1 and 0 (superimposed), i.e., simultaneously equal to 0 and 1。 Such a difference in how much it?Take "Naruto" for example, then it is a classic computer Sasuke, Naruto is a quantum computer, looking for something, Sasuke can only talk to myself a place, perhaps looking for a year。
But Naruto can separate the five video avatar, video avatar and then five and then separate the five video avatar, avatar avatar avatar again, all spare simultaneously go to different places, and instantly find something, and then cloned withdrawn, leaving only a Naruto, things get back to complete。
Robert 舍尔科普夫 Yale University (RobertSchoelkopf) said: "When a quantum computer with 50 or 100 qubits, and these quantum bits can work very well, you can do a full correction, then you can use this quantum computer anywhere in the world to do the calculation classical computers will never do the job. "。 Change brought about a quantum computer powerful computing power will be enormous, and even that may affect national security。 Therefore, Pan Jianwei, academician of Chinese Academy of Sciences said: "I believe in the importance of quantum technology in the 21st century is comparable to the Manhattan Project of the last century。
"2, the block chain and Bitcoin mining in 2008, the Central blocks chain concept Nakamoto (SatoshiNakamoto) was first proposed, the block chain is a rule, is a technology that is the core of safe and reliable。 At present, the application of the world's most famous block chain technology is Bitcoin, Satoshi is the founder of Bitcoin, then, we start to glimpse block chain from the concept of the actual situation Bitcoin。
Now, we can imagine a block chain books, in both this part of the books of each block, complete information on this part of the books kept in all nodes of this block, which is to the center of the block chain technology , have only a portion of each block of books, but this part will be recorded on an information block, a block of even one block, the block chain formed。 Block chain advantage is that it forms a trust mechanism, an analogy, you deposit $ 100 in the bank, if the bank hacker black, put your money designated to go up, and also data cleared, you hands do not have any information you can prove that you have $ 100 in bank assets。
But if it were a block chain, then it means that the bank where this block each node has a complete record of the books, which means that your home next door neighbors and even Aunt Street every inhabitant of this area can have books prove that you have 100 yuan in bank deposits。 Compared center mechanism, to the center of the block chain of traditional financial sector to make it more reliable and secure, even if some of the nodes of the loss of information, the system can still continue normal operation, and therefore the block chain is considered to be very safe and reliable technology。
So Bitcoin mining, what is it?The block-based chain go on, Nakamoto in 2009 proposed the concept of Bitcoin, he prescribed Bitcoin network, every ten minutes will produce 50 Bitcoin, when the total reached 10.5 million (21 million half), 25 output bits credits, when the total amount reaches 15,750,000 generated every 10 minutes, every 10 minutes 12.5, when the total reached 21 million bitcoins will stop growing, which means that the total amount of Bitcoin from the outset was scheduled to die in 21 million。 The Bitcoin "mining" is the new generation of Bitcoin way, "mining" of people known as the "miners", the miners use computers to solve mathematical problems Bitcoin network, first published answers to solve the problem of the miners , included books, synchronize all the nodes included, which is called mining success, to get Bitcoin。 Before block chain mechanism in the development of quantum computing concept is very safe and reliable, at least so many years, Bitcoin has not been hacked by hackers, but in recent years, the rapid development of quantum computing, more than before the expected rate, therefore, industry insiders predict within a decade, safe and reliable block chain will be a huge threat from a quantum computer。
Second, quantum computing how a threat to block chain?To understand quantum computing threats to block chain, the first was from Bitcoin system security protocols, protocol bits credits cryptography involves two types, i.e., the hash function (hash function) used during mining and asymmetric cryptography is used to provide a digital signature in the block chain。
The miners use of its computing capacity, using the SHA-256 hash function calculates a random number for each block, the results obtained in this process is very easy to be verified, but it is difficult to find。
Asymmetrical cryptography is used for transactions on credit authorization bit chain block, each user will be assigned on a whole chain of a private key and a public key, which is a public key cryptography (public key), a public key cryptosystem the system uses a pair of keys to encrypt information: can be widely shared public key and only the owner of a private key known only。
Anyone can use the public key to encrypt a message intended recipient, but only the recipient can use his private key to decrypt the message。 Such an asymmetric cryptographic algorithm using the Elliptic Curve Digital Signature Algorithm is called (the ECDSA) to generate a key, a private key given, it is easy to derive the corresponding public key, but conversely difficult to calculate。 This is now Bitcoin security reasons。
The quantum computer might be two line of defense a huge threat in the future, quantum computers can quickly crack the hash function, thereby dominating the block chain, while the more recent future, in 2027, a quantum computer Shure algorithm (Shor'salgorithm) is predicted to be able to crack keys in less than ten minutes (600 seconds)。 In the world of Bitcoin, the classical computer and the success rate of mining operators force has a certain relationship, but considered force does not mean we will be able dug mine (in your count does not exceed 50% of the full force of the network in the case), mining and luck are also related to some extent to maze, for example, a person go faster, if one by one test, then he can certainly the fastest to reach the end of the maze, but if a person though more slowly , but only once to try to find the way to the end of the maze it?Therefore, people do not necessarily go faster Wynn who goes slowly, for that matter, considered force miners not necessarily count than the first force is small miners dug mine。 Said the same as above, mining fact, solving math problems, find a hash function of the encrypted random number, but there may be two different groups of miners also found that two random numbers, announced the different blocks, this the case, a predetermined bit is handled more credits that added block chain block, the other block is waived。
For example, which is similar in a district where there are 51 people say you deposit 100 dollars in the bank, while 49 people said you saved 50 dollars, in this case, majority rule, the bank thinks you saved 100 dollars is really, saved 50 dollars is false。 Further explain the concept of "51% attack" from this provision, in the block chain, if a group of miners with 51% of the entire power network operator, and that he will be able to monopolize the entire block chain, because he will always be other than 49 operator sets power miners% faster processing block, that is generated after all the bits of the resultant his credits。
Quantum computers will threat of mining, 戴夫士阿加 Wall (DiveshAggarwal) and the National University (NUS) Singapore researchers conducted in-depth research, and to publish a paper in October 2017, at least they think first in the next decade, using ASIC mining faster than the speed of a quantum computer, but ten years later, mining speed quantum computers will be rapid growth; secondly, the face of a quantum computer, asymmetric cryptographic algorithm using chain blocks, namely public key cryptography will be a greater threat。
The researchers pointed out that the National University of Singapore, by using a quantum computer, you can easily turn run by private presumption of public process, each person's private key will be easily inferred from Quantum Computer。 One second, is expected in 2027 just ten minutes / 600 seconds Similarly, we can put this decryption process is likened to a maze, classical computer can do is silly: Unit | ▲ quantum computer to break the encryption signature Estimated time required direction to go in one direction until it went to a dead end, then go back and choose to go the other way, however, a quantum computer is to give you a perspective of God, overlooking the maze, which way to clear out。 But a quantum computer requires a certain quantum bit in order to achieve such an extent, foreign media motherboard considered a 4000 qubit quantum computer could collapse block chain, which means that the first person or team to make and use such quantum the computer can be solved and verify each transaction, the future is not yet in circulation will have all the money will be its monopoly encryption, encryption monetary system would be the collapse of trust。
Third, the development of a quantum computer is still in the primary stage of development of a quantum computer course soon, the future may also bring huge threat will block chain, but now quantum computer is still in a very early "toy computer" stage, at present, the whole the world's giants can only make about 10 to achieve high fidelity qubit quantum computer, Chinese Academy of Sciences last week released 11-qubit superconducting quantum computing services, is more than the world's second 10-qubit cloud computing services the first family is IBM, late last year, IBM has opened a cloud computing service 20 qubits。 Like quantum computing services can not yet be used to solve any practical computing problems, however, developers can already use cloud services such as quantum computer to learn programming knowledge related to the。 It looks, it seems that 4000 qubit is still very far away from us, however, it may not be so far away as we thought, because in recent years based Microsoft, Google as well as IBM (three companies have set up their own dedicated quantum computing Research laboratory) in a series of breakthroughs achieved in the field of quantum computing, "Fortune" magazine predicted the first practical quantum computers will be made out within a decade。
Within ten years this time, in the end is how long, many companies have been predicted, such as Microsoft had predicted practical quantum computers will be made out in 2025, also in 2017, Google will put words in five years (that is, around 2022) make commercial practical quantum computer。
Conclusion: Development Strategies influential but there are a quantum computer is inevitable, will one day threaten to block chain, but many seem to block chain of Experts have not wary。 According to "Fortune" magazine reported that, in the November 2017 meeting Crypto2017 (block chain cryptography leading staff meetings), the global "no fear" quantum computing risk。
One expert said that it would be a "very expensive operation," may require "government level" spending, while another expert, completely ridiculed the idea, saying he waved straight, until practical quantum computer came out, the public key password system has been developed to the extent not need to worry about quantum computers, so just … do not matter。
But these same experts have a point of view – that is the emergence of quantum computing will endanger all the existing encryption methods encryption (including RSA token) security。
Quantum computers would affect the security of the entire financial and banking sector, not just the block chain。
At the same time, there are agencies attached great importance, such as in 2015, the US National Security Agency (NSA, NationalSecurityAgency) announced that it is the study of quantum cryptography, which can withstand the encryption system for quantum computing。 In academic circles, there cryptography experts are studying quantum cryptography, and the project has been implemented block chain of quantum cryptography, for example, QuantumResistantLedger team and the Russian Quantum Center of EvgenyKiktenko team is committed to building a quantum computer quantum can withstand attacks block chain, and has a standard of quantum cryptography commercialized。
At present, probably no one can accurately predict the specific point in time the practical quantum computer was born, but the positive point of view, then, the birth of a commercial quantum computer may be faster than we expected, because of today's technological development is accelerating, rather than uniform development , perhaps in 2018, a quantum computer is still a very early stage of development progress and practical quantum computer only to 5%, but probably in 2019, the schedule went to 10%, while in 2020, progress will reach 30% all this is possible。 Technology has been developing, chain block and encrypt currency and other emerging technologies are still in the infancy may reach mature technology still has a long way to go, developers need to be careful in this series hinder the process will appear, which which also include quantum computing。
(Source: Chi thing)。